Single Sign-On (SSO) is an authentication method that enables users to securely authenticate with multiple applications and websites by using just one set of credentials. Many protocols and standards are available when identifying and working with the SSO. These include:
SAML, OAuth, OIDC, Kerberos, and Smart Card Authentication.
SAML is an open standard that encodes text into machine language and enables the exchange of identification information. It has become one of the core standards for SSO and is used to help application providers ensure their authentication requests are appropriate. In addition, SAML 2.0 is specifically optimized for use in web applications, enabling the transmission of information through a web browser.
Here, the Identity and Service Provider plays a vital role as they are the central management system for authentication.
Identity Provider(IDP): A centralized management system or repository responsible for authenticating the user and passing the details to the Service Provider.
Service Provider(SP): The owner of the Applications whose services the user will use. It trusts the IDP and uses it for authenticating.