Database Management System (DBMS)

What is a DBMS?

DBMS stands for Database Management System. It is a software that is purposed to manage, organize, and store organizational data in a well-structured way. Users can create, modify, or query a database depending on operational needs.

A DBMS is used to create a safe and easily accessible environment to work with enterprise data.

What are the Key Functions of a Database Management System?

Some of the key functions of a Database Management System are as follows:

Database Definition/Modeling: A DBMS with the use of Data Definition Language (DDL) allows users to define a database’s schema, structure, and the relationship of data within the database.

Data Storage and Retrieval: A database management system is responsible for the management of the data stored in the database and for its retrieval, which users can do with the use of Data Query Language (DQL).

Data Integrity Management: A DBMS also ensures that data stored in the database is consistent and with minimal redundancy. It does this by enforcing integrity constraints such as primary keys, foreign keys, and check constraints and by using a feature called a data dictionary.

Data Security Management: Maintaining database security is one of the key functions of a database management system. It enables the use of security measures such as authentication, authorization, and encryption that the database admins can use to protect the data from unauthorized access, modification, or deletion.

Backup and recovery management: Data loss can be catastrophic in any situation. A DBMS allows database admins to create and restore data in the event of any loss of data, using a backup and recovery system.

Types of DBMS

There are many types of DBMs, and the five major types are:

1. Distributed Database Management System

This is a type of DBMS where a centrally located database application manages a network of distributed databases that are logically interrelated. The data on the centralized database is synced periodically with the distributed nodes, ensuring that all updates are available universally on all connected databases.

2. Network Database Management System

A network database management system is a complex network where each file or record has multiple owners and multiple branches. It facilitates the establishment of complex and flexible models of relationships between various entities. The network DBMS has a graph structure and is capable of reflecting complex relationships, unlike other types of DBMS.

3. Hierarchical Database Management System

Hierarchical DBMS is analogous to a family tree. It either has a top-down or bottom-up format and displays parent-child relationships between various data stored in it. The unique feature of this DMBS is that while its parent files can have multiple child files, each child file can only have one parent file.

4. Relational Database Management System

Relational DBMS is the most popular type of DBMS because it allows data to be stored in rows and columns of a table. This format is extremely scalable and user-friendly and allows users to manage large volumes of information easily.

5. Object-Oriented Database Management System

Object-oriented DBMS leverages the concept of object-oriented programming and stores data inside of objects instead of using tabular formats. Each object has its own attributes and methods that define the data stored inside. This type of DBMS also allows for determining object classes, inheritance, properties, methods, subclasses, etc.

Benefits of DBMS

In addition to facilitating well-structured data for quick retrieval, DBMS provides several other advantages:

Data Governance: DBMS provides access controls to enterprises to govern who can access what data.

Enhanced Security: Technologies such as encryptions and blockchain provide enhanced security to data stored in a database.

Backups: DBMS have backup protocols in place to prevent data loss in case of contingencies (device damage or fires.)

Sharing Options: DBMS enhances a collaborative environment by providing concurrent access and data-sharing features to facilitate teamwork and quicker turnarounds.

Applications of DBMS

DBMS may seem to be a complex system, but it provides several key advantages to its users. Some of the real-world applications are:

Ticketing and Reservations

DBMS systems in railways, airways, and bus terminals keep a meticulous record of booked tickets, arrival and departure times, delays, cancellations, and other information.


DBMS in banking keeps track of the transactions happening through the bank, like deposits, creation of new accounts, loan repayments, penalties, and interests, etc.

Library Management

DBMS in libraries helps keep track of inventory, books on shelves, issued books, details, and status of each book, and much more.